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- A Comparison Of The Processes Of The Brewer With Those Of The Whiskey Distiller
- How To Order Apples In The Hogsheads
- To Sweeten Hogsheads By Burning
- Distilling Of Buckwheat
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- Distilling Of Potatoes
- How To Build A Malt Kiln In Every Distillery
- Malt
- To Make Rye Malt For Stilling
- The Art Of Making Gin After The Process Of The Holland Distillers
- Profits Of A Common Distillery
- Of Spirituous Liquors Or Spirits
- How To Clarify Whiskey &c
- Precautions Against Fire
- How To Distil Apples
- How To Renew Yeast When Sour

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- The Following Receipt To Make An Excellent American Wine
- Of The Season For Brewing
- Observations On Erecting Distilleries
- To Make Ale Or Any Other Liquor That Is Too New Or Sweet Drink Stale
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- Of The Distiller Of Whiskey
- To Sweeten Hogsheads By Scalding
- To Know When Yeast Is Good Or Bad
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Of The Distiller Of Whiskey

Whiskey is made either with rye, barley, or Indian corn. One, or all
those kinds of grains is used, as they are more or less abundant in the
country. I do not know how far they are mixed in Kentucky; but Indian
corn is here in general the basis of whiskey, and more often employed

I have ascertained, in the different distilleries which I have visited
in the United States--

1stly. That, in general, the grain is not sprouted. I have, however,
seen some distillers who put 10lbs. of malt into a hogshead of
fermentation containing 100 gallons, which reduces it to almost nothing.

2dly. That they put two bushels of ground grain into a hogshead of
fermentation containing 100 gallons, filled up with water.

3dly. They had a ferment to determine the fermentation, which, when
finished, yields two gallons of whiskey per bushel of grain, and
sometimes ten quarts, but very seldom. I do not know whether those
results are exact; but, supposing them to be so, they must be subject to
great variations, according to the quality of the grain, the season, the
degree of heat, of the atmosphere, and the manner of conducting the
fermentation. From my analysing the different sorts of grains, I know
that Indian corn must yield the most spirit.

From the above proportions, it results, that 100 gallons of the vinous
liquor of distillers yield only 4 gallons of whiskey, and very seldom 5;
that is, from a 25th to a 20th. It is easy to conceive how weak a
mixture, 25 parts of water to one of whiskey, must be; thus the produce
of the first distillation is only at 11 deg. or 12 deg. by the areometer, the
water being at 10 deg.. It is only by several subsequent distillations, that
the necessary concentration is obtained, to make saleable whiskey. These
repeated operations are attended with an increased expense of fuel,
labor, and time.

Such are the usual methods of the whiskey distillers. Before we compare
them with those of the brewer, let us examine the nature of
fermentation, and what are the elements the most proper to form a good
vinous liquor: thence we shall judge with certainty, of those two ways
of operating.

Next: Of Fermentation

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