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- A Comparison Of The Processes Of The Brewer With Those Of The Whiskey Distiller
- How To Order Apples In The Hogsheads
- To Sweeten Hogsheads By Burning
- Distilling Of Buckwheat
- Of The Formation Of Vinous Liquors With Grains In Order To Make Spirits
- Of Hogs
- Distilling Of Potatoes
- How To Build A Malt Kiln In Every Distillery
- Malt
- To Make Rye Malt For Stilling
- The Art Of Making Gin After The Process Of The Holland Distillers
- Profits Of A Common Distillery
- Of Spirituous Liquors Or Spirits
- How To Clarify Whiskey &c
- How To Distil Apples
- Precautions Against Fire
- How To Renew Yeast When Sour

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- To Set A Doubling Still
- Use Of The Kettle
- To Make The Best Yeast For Daily Use
- The Best Method Of Setting Stills
- To Mash Rye In The Common Mode
- On Fining Liquors
- The Following Receipt To Make An Excellent American Wine
- To Mash One Third Rye And Two Thirds Corn
- Of The Season For Brewing
- To Make Ale Or Any Other Liquor That Is Too New Or Sweet Drink Stale
- To Sweeten Hogsheads By Scalding
- Observations On Erecting Distilleries
- On Colouring Liquors
- To Make Elderberry Wine To Drink Made Warm As A Cordial
- To Recover Sour Ale
- To Know When Yeast Is Good Or Bad
- To Give An Aged Flavor To Whiskey

The Art Of Making Gin After The Process Of The Holland Distillers

Having indicated the most proper means of obtaining spirits, I will now
offer to the public the manner of making Gin, according to the methods
used by the distillers in Holland. It may be more properly joined to the
art of making whiskey, as it adds only to the price of the liquor, that
of the juniper berries, the product of which will amply repay its cost.
Many distillers in the United States have tried to imitate the excellent
liquor coming from Holland, under the name gin. They have imagined
different methods of proceeding, and have more or less attained their
end. I have myself tried it, and my method is consigned in a patent.

But those imitations are far from the degree of perfection of the
Holland gin: they want that unity of taste, which is the result of a
single creation; they are visibly compounds, more or less well combined,
and not the result of a spontaneous production.

To this capital defect, which makes those imitations so widely different
from their original, is joined their high price, which prevents its
general consumption. In fact, it is made at a considerable expense: the
whiskey must be purchased, rectified and distilled over again with the
berries. These expenses are increased by the waste of spirit occasioned
by those reiterated distillations. This brings the price of this false
gin to three times that of the whiskey: consequently the poorer sort of
people, whose number is always considerable, are deprived of the
benefits of a wholesome liquor, and restrained to whiskey, which is
commonly not so.

The methods used in Holland, have reduced gin to the lowest price; that
of the juniper berries being there very trifling, and increasing but
little the price of whiskey: still that small addition is almost reduced
to nothing, as will be seen hereafter.

The United States are, in some parts, almost covered with the tree
called here cedar; which tree is no other than the juniper, and grows
almost every where, and bears yearly a berry, which is in reality the
juniper berry. Some Hollanders knew it at Boston, collected considerable
quantities of it in Massachusetts, and shipping it to some of the
eastern harbors, sold it as coming from Holland. I have seen some at
Philadelphia ten years ago, at the house of a Hollander, who received it
from Massachusetts in hogsheads of about ten hundred weight, and sold as
the produce of his own country, what was really that of the United

I collected myself a great quantity of those berries, at Norfolk, Va. by
means of negroes, to whom I paid one dollar per bushel of 40 lbs. being
2-1/2 cts. per pound. Two years ago, it sold for 6 cents in
Philadelphia, and bore the same price at Pittsburgh.

There is a great deal of cedar in Kentucky, and consequently of berries.
I have seen them at Blue Licks, and they abound near the Kentucky

Although an incredible number of those trees is cut down daily, there is
still a greater number standing, in the United States; and millions of
bushels of berries are lost every year, while only skilful hands are
wanted, to make them useful to mankind. The juniper berry has many
medical properties: it is a delightful aromatic, and contains an oil
essential, and a sweet extract, which by the fermentation yields a
vinous liquor, made into a sort of wine in some countries; that is
called wine for the poor: it strengthens the stomach, when debilitated
by bad food or too hard labor.

The Hollanders, who have long had the art of trading upon every thing,
have constantly turned even their poverty to account. They have immense
fabrications of gin, and scarcely any juniper trees. They only collect
the berry in those countries where it is neglected as useless, as in
France and Tyrol, which produce a great deal of it. The United States
need have no recourse to Europe, in order to get the juniper berries:
they have in abundance at home, what the Hollanders can only procure
with trouble and money. They can therefore rival them with great
advantage; but they must follow the same methods employed in the Holland

The juniper berry contains the sweet mucous extract, in a great
proportion: it has therefore the principle necessary to the spirituous
fermentation; and, indeed, it ferments spontaneously. When fresh, and
heaped up, it acquires a degree of heat, but not enough to burn, as I
have ascertained: it is therefore safely transported in hogsheads. From
that facility of fermenting, it must be considered as a good ferment,
and as increasing the quantity of spirit, when joined to a fermentable

A distiller may at pleasure convert his whiskey into gin. He needs only
to perfume the wort which he puts in fermentation, by adding a certain
quantity of the berries, slightly broken: the fermentation is then
common to both; their sweet mucosity enriches that of the wort, and
increases the spirit, while at the same time the soapy extract, which is
the proximate principle of vegetation, yields the essential oil, which
perfumes the liquor.[C]

The fermentation being common to both substances, unites them
intimately; and when, by the distillation, the spirit is separated from
the water, there remains an homogenous liquor, resulting from a single
creation, and having that unity of taste, and all the properties of
Holland gin, because obtained by the same means.

One single and same distillation can therefore yield to the distiller
either gin or whiskey, as it requires no more labor, and its conversion
into gin costs only the price of the berries, which repays him amply,
either by the spirit it yields, or by its essential oil, which, floating
on the surface, may be easily collected. This oil bears a great price,
and the Hollanders sell much of it.

We have seen, in the 10th chapter of this work, that my hogsheads for
the fermentation, contain about 120 gallons of wort, being the
production of the saccharine extract of 12 bushels of grain. The
intelligent distiller will himself determine the quantity of berries
necessary for each hogshead to have a good aromatic perfume. He may
begin with 10 lbs. per hogshead; and will, upon trial, judge whether or
not this quantity is sufficient, or must be increased. At any rate,
economy should not be consulted in the use of the berries, since their
price does not increase that of the whiskey. This low price must
naturally become the principle of an immense fabrication of gin; and
henceforth it will be an important article of exportation for the United
States, as well as a considerable and wholesome object of home

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