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- To Set A Doubling Still
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- The Following Receipt To Make An Excellent American Wine
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The Following Is A Very Highly Approved American Mode Of Making Cider

Take care to have every necessary utensil to be made use of in the whole
process, perfectly clean and free from every foreign smell. For this
purpose, before you begin your work, let your mill, trough and press be
made perfectly clean, by thoroughly washing, and if necessary, with
scalding water. The casks are another material object, and if musty, or
any other bad smell, one end should be taken out, and with shavings burn
the inside; then scrub them clean, and put in the head, scald them well
afterwards, and drain them perfectly; when dry, bung them tight and keep
them in a cool shady place until wanted for use.--The apples should be
quite ripe, and all the unripe and rotten ones, leaves, and every other
thing that can tend to give the cider any disagreeable taste, carefully
separated from them. I have found from careful attention and many
experiments, that it is a great advantage to the cider to be separated
from the gross parts as soon as possible; for this purpose, I tried
several methods: that which I found succeeded the best, I shall now
relate, as by following it, I was able to preserve my cider in a sound
state, though made in the early part of the season. I took a large pipe,
of about 150 gallons, had one of the heads taken out, and on the inside
of the other laid on edge, four strips of boards, two inches wide, and
on these strips placed a false bottom, filled with gimlet holes, three
inches a part. On this false bottom, I put a hair cloth, (old blanket or
swingline tow will do) so as to prevent any sand from washing into the
space between the true and false bottoms; I procured a quantity of
coarse sand, which was carefully washed in repeated waters, until it
would not discolor the clean water--then dried the sand, put it in the
pipe, on the hair cloth, (coarse blanket or swingline tow,) about 9
inches thick.

Thus having every thing in readiness, I went through the process of
making, as quick as possible, by having the apples ground fine early in
the morning, putting them in the press as fast as they were ground; and
then in sufficient quantities pressed out the juice, and put it over the
sand in the cask, (having previously bored a gimlet hole in the side of
the cask), between the true and false bottoms, in which I introduced a
large goose-quill, stopped with another. The pipe was placed so high, as
to admit of a cask under it, to receive the liquor as it ran from the
quill, which, if rightly managed, will be perfectly fine, and being put
away in a cool cellar, and stopped close, will keep well, and prove of
an excellent quality.

This process is easy, and in every person's power to execute, as the
liquor, by being cleared, from its gross feculences, will not run into
that violent fermentation, so destructive to the fine vinous flavor,
which renders good cider so pleasing a drink.

Query. Would not a quart of good apple brandy to each barrel of cider,
made in this way, prevent any fermentation?

But it is generally believed that cider is the better for having
undergone a fermentation, becoming then more active and light; cider
that has undergone condensation, or has been boiled down until strong,
has been found to keep sound some length of time, but it is too heavy
and destructive to the appetite, cloying the digesting powers.--And by
too frequent use, I fancy, will ultimately produce ague and fevers; and
I fear, cider made according to the foregoing receipt, would have a
similar effect, but in a lesser degree.

I would recommend after a due attention to cleanliness, in the apple
mill, trough, press and casks, that the apples be assorted, and having
been exposed to the air, under a roof or shed some time, selecting the
sound only, that they be ground fine, and let stand soaking in the
pumice twelve hours, and then pressed off, through a clean rye straw
cheese (being the most common and convenient in the country,) and when
flowing from the press, a vessel should be provided, with the bottom
full of gimlet holes, in the style of a riddle, on which lay a coarse
cloth, then a layer of clean sand, over which a parcel of coarse rye
straw, and suffer it to filter thro' this vessel into the large
receiving tub; the rye straw will intercept the coarser pieces of
pumice, and may be changed frequently--This mode will rid the liquor of
all the coarser pieces of pumice--then I would recommend that the cider
should be placed in open hogsheads, such as are used for mashing grain
in distilleries; those being raised about two feet and an half high on
logs or a scaffolding, under a shade or covering--a spile hole bored
near the bottom of each, so as to admit a barrel to stand under the
spile--in this state, I would recommend it to stand until it undergoes a
fermentation, carefully watching the top, and when the pumice is found
to have risen, to skim it off carefully, then having previously provided
sweet barrels, draw it off by the spile hole, adding from a pint to a
quart of apple brandy to each barrel of strong cider, bung it up tight,
and store it where the frost will not injure it. In this way, I presume
it will keep well--and if the party be so disposed, I would recommend
any bottling to be done in April, and during clear weather, though it is
safe to bottle immediately after having undergone a thorough

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