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Dr Gall's And Petiol's Method Of Wine Making

The process of wine making before described, however, can only be
applied in such seasons, and with such varieties of grapes, that
contain all the necessary elements for a good wine in due proportion.
For unfavorable seasons, with such varieties of grapes as are deficient
in some of the principal ingredients, we must take a different
course--follow a different method. To see our way clearly before us in
this, let us first examine which are the constituent parts of must or
grape juice. A chemical analysis of must, shows the following result:

Grape juice contains sugar, water, free acids, tannin, gummy and mucous
substances, coloring matter, fragrant or flavoring substances, (aroma
bouquet). A good wine should contain all these ingredients in due
proportion. If there is an excess of one, and a want of the other, the
wine will lose in quality. Must, which contains all of these, in due
proportion, we call _normal_ must, and only by determining the amount
of sugar and acids in this so-called normal must, can we gain the
knowledge how to improve such must, which does not contain the
necessary proportion of each. The frequent occurrence of unfavorable
seasons in Europe, when the grapes did not ripen fully, and were sadly
deficient in sugar, set intelligent men to thinking how this defect
could be remedied; and a grape crop, which was almost worthless, from
its want of sugar, and its excess of acids, could be made to yield at
least a fair article, instead of the sour and unsaleable article
generally produced in such seasons. Among the foremost who experimented
with this object in view I will here name CHAPTAL, PETIOL; but
especially DR. LUDWIG GALL, who has at last reduced the whole science
of wine-making to such a mathematical certainty, that we stand amazed
only, that so simple a process should not have been discovered long
ago. It is the old story of the egg of Columbus; but the poor vintners
of Germany, and France, and we here, are none the less deeply indebted
to those intelligent and persevering men for the incalculable benefits
they have conferred upon us. The production of good wine is thus
reduced to a mathematical certainty; although we cannot in a bad
season, produce as high flavored and delicate wines, as in the best
years, we can now always make a fair article, by following the simple
rules laid down by DR. GALL. When this method was first introduced, it
was calumniated and despised--called adulteration of wine, and even
prohibited by the governments of Europe; but, DR. GALL fearlessly
challenged his opponents to have his wines analyzed by the most eminent
chemists; which was repeatedly done, and the results showed that they
contained nothing but such ingredients which pure wine should contain;
and since men like VON BABO, DOBEREINER and others have openly endorsed
and recommended gallizing, prejudice is giving way before the light of
scientific knowledge.

But to determine the amount of sugar and acids contained in the must we
need a few necessary implements. These are:

Next: The Must Scale Or Saccharometer

Previous: Use Of The Husks And Lees

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