Dr Gall's And Petiol's Method Of Wine Making

The process of wine making before described, however, can only be

applied in such seasons, and with such varieties of grapes, that

contain all the necessary elements for a good wine in due proportion.

For unfavorable seasons, with such varieties of grapes as are deficient

in some of the principal ingredients, we must take a different

course--follow a different method. To see our way clearly before us in

this, let us first examine which are the constituent parts of must or

grape juice. A chemical analysis of must, shows the following result:

Grape juice contains sugar, water, free acids, tannin, gummy and mucous

substances, coloring matter, fragrant or flavoring substances, (aroma

bouquet). A good wine should contain all these ingredients in due

proportion. If there is an excess of one, and a want of the other, the

wine will lose in quality. Must, which contains all of these, in due

proportion, we call _normal_ must, and only by determining the amount

of sugar and acids in this so-called normal must, can we gain the

knowledge how to improve such must, which does not contain the

necessary proportion of each. The frequent occurrence of unfavorable

seasons in Europe, when the grapes did not ripen fully, and were sadly

deficient in sugar, set intelligent men to thinking how this defect

could be remedied; and a grape crop, which was almost worthless, from

its want of sugar, and its excess of acids, could be made to yield at

least a fair article, instead of the sour and unsaleable article

generally produced in such seasons. Among the foremost who experimented

with this object in view I will here name CHAPTAL, PETIOL; but

especially DR. LUDWIG GALL, who has at last reduced the whole science

of wine-making to such a mathematical certainty, that we stand amazed

only, that so simple a process should not have been discovered long

ago. It is the old story of the egg of Columbus; but the poor vintners

of Germany, and France, and we here, are none the less deeply indebted

to those intelligent and persevering men for the incalculable benefits

they have conferred upon us. The production of good wine is thus

reduced to a mathematical certainty; although we cannot in a bad

season, produce as high flavored and delicate wines, as in the best

years, we can now always make a fair article, by following the simple

rules laid down by DR. GALL. When this method was first introduced, it

was calumniated and despised--called adulteration of wine, and even

prohibited by the governments of Europe; but, DR. GALL fearlessly

challenged his opponents to have his wines analyzed by the most eminent

chemists; which was repeatedly done, and the results showed that they

contained nothing but such ingredients which pure wine should contain;

and since men like VON BABO, DOBEREINER and others have openly endorsed

and recommended gallizing, prejudice is giving way before the light of

scientific knowledge.

But to determine the amount of sugar and acids contained in the must we

need a few necessary implements. These are:

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